Evoked sensations with transcutaneous electrical stimulation with different frequencies, waveforms, and electrode configurations
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Transcutaneous electrical stimulation
Background: Current Perception Threshold (CPT) is a technique used for diagnostic purposes that applies sinusoidal currents transcutaneously at 5 Hz, 250 Hz, and 2KHz to preferentially excite C, Aδ, and Aβ afferent nerve fibers correspondingly. This fact may be interesting for evoking different electrotactile sensations for a wide variety of applications. Methods: Sensations evoked by 5 Hz, 250 Hz, and 2KHz frequencies; sinusoidal, square, and 250 μs-pulsed waveforms; and conventional and concentric electrode configurations were analyzed in 19 healthy volunteers. Stimuli were applied in the dorsum of the hand in a double-blind manner and CPTs were defined based on participants' verbal feedback. After each stimulus participants filled in a form with sensation modality, irradiation, intensity, and emotion descriptors. Results: The frequency showed a significant effect on the four domains of evoked sensations and the waveform showed a significant effect on the modality domain. For most ...