Constellation loss: Improving the efficiency of deep metric learning loss functions for the optimal embedding of histopathological images
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Deep learning diagnostic algorithms are proving comparable results with human experts in a wide variety of tasks, and they still require a huge amount of well-annotated data for training, which is often non affordable. Metric learning techniques have allowed a reduction in the required annotated data allowing few-shot learning over deep learning architectures. Aims and Objectives: In this work, we analyze the state-of-the-art loss functions such as triplet loss, contrastive loss, and multi-class N-pair loss for the visual embedding extraction of hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) microscopy images and we propose a novel constellation loss function that takes advantage of the visual distances of the embeddings of the negative samples and thus, performing a regularization that increases the quality of the extracted embeddings. Materials and Methods: To this end, we employed the public H&E imaging dataset from the University Medical Center Mannheim (Germany) that contains tissue samples from ...