Advances in membranes and membrane reactors for the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis process for biofuel production
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Author/sLiuzzi, Dalia; Fernández-Gesalaga, E.; Perez Gil, Susana; Ipiñazar, Enrique; Arteche, Amaya; [et al.]
The biomass-to-liquid (BtL) process is a promising technology to obtain clean, liquid, second-generation biofuels and chemicals. The BtL process, which comprises several steps, is based upon the gasification of biomass and the catalytic transformation of the syngas that is obtained via the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) reaction, producing a hydrocarbon pool known as syncrude. The FTS process is a well-established technology, and there are currently very large FTS plants operating worldwide that produce liquid fuels and hydrocarbons from natural gas (NG) (gas-to-liquids, GtL process) and coal (coal-to-liquids, CtL process). Due to the limited availability of local biomass, the size of the BtL plants should be downscaled compared to that of a GtL or CtL plant. Since the feasibility of the XtL (X refers to any energy source that can be converted to liquid, including coal, NG, biomass, municipal solid waste, etc.) processes is strongly influenced by the economies of scale, the viability ...