Exploiting flexibility of radio base stations in local DSO markets for congestion management with shared balancing responsibility between TSO and DSO
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Distributed energy resources bidding and aggregation
Electric power systems are facing major challenges as fossil fuel generation is replaced by renewable generation, which is often characterised by variable behaviour. This increases the need for resources to be used to guarantee voltage and frequency stability and to ensure power quality. At the same time, an increasing number of flexible demand and storage systems are being located at distribution level. All these resources can potentially provide network services if they are aggregated effectively. To achieve this, however, the roles of the diverse network stakeholders –transmission systems operators (TSOs), distribution systems operators (DSOs) and aggregators– should be reshaped. Together, the way realtime electricity markets are organised must also be adapted to reflect the new operating environment. The project SmartNet (http://smartnet-project.eu/) compares five TSO-DSO coordination schemes and different real-time market architectures with the aim of finding out which one ...