Controlling phlebotomine sand flies to prevent canine Leishmania infantum infection: A case of knowing your enemy
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Leishmaniosis caused by Leishmania infantum is a widespread zoonotic disease that can be transmitted to animals and humans by their vectors, blood-sucking phlebotomine sand flies. To prevent canine leishmaniosis across the whole Mediterranean region, vector control is essential. Because of phlebotomine breeding sites are diverse, environmental larval controls have limited practical value. Control methods of adults are being evaluated, such as selective baits based on sugar feeding of males and females or Attractive Toxic Sugar Baits (ATSB), and the indoor use of Long-Lasting-Insecticidal Nets (LLINs) treated with permethrin to prevent sand fly bites complementing the Indoor Residual Spraying (IRS) approach suggested by WHO. Although several strategies exist, the best control measure to prevent canine Leishmania infantum is to treat dogs using biocidal topical formulations based on legal insecticides (PTs18) or repellents (PTs19) (as collars, spot-ons and/or sprays) during the period when ...