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dc.contributor.authorPrabhu, Achutha
dc.contributor.authorGimel, Jean-Christophe
dc.contributor.authorAyuela, Andrés
dc.contributor.authorArrese-Igor, Silvia
dc.contributor.authorGaitero, J.J.
dc.contributor.authorDolado, Jorge S.
dc.date.accessioned2018-10-25T14:10:41Z
dc.date.available2018-10-25T14:10:41Z
dc.date.issued2018-10-25
dc.identifier.citationPrabhu, Achutha, Jean-Christophe Gimel, Andrés Ayuela, Silvia Arrese-Igor, Juan J. Gaitero, and Jorge S. Dolado. “A Multi-Scale Approach for Percolation Transition and Its Application to Cement Setting.” Scientific Reports 8, no. 1 (October 25, 2018). doi:10.1038/s41598-018-33918-6.en
dc.identifier.issn2045-2322en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11556/633
dc.description.abstractShortly after mixing cement grains with water, a cementitious fluid paste is formed that immediately transforms into a solid form by a phenomenon known as setting. Setting actually corresponds to the percolation of emergent network structures consisting of dissolving cement grains glued together by nanoscale hydration products, mainly calcium-silicate-hydrates. As happens in many percolation phenomena problems, the theoretical identification of the percolation threshold (i.e. the cement setting) is still challenging, since the length scale where percolation becomes apparent (typically the length of the cement grains, microns) is many times larger than the nanoscale hydrates forming the growing spanning network. Up to now, the long-lasting gap of knowledge on the establishment of a seamless handshake between both scales has been an unsurmountable obstacle for the development of a predictive theory of setting. Herein we present a true multi-scale model which concurrently provides information at the scale of cement grains (microns) and at the scale of the nano-hydrates that emerge during cement hydration. A key feature of the model is the recognition of cement setting as an off-lattice bond percolation process between cement grains. Inasmuch as this is so, the macroscopic probability of forming bonds between cement grains can be statistically analysed in smaller local observation windows containing fewer cement grains, where the nucleation and growth of the nano-hydrates can be explicitly described using a kinetic Monte Carlo Nucleation and Growth model. The most striking result of the model is the finding that only a few links (~12%) between cement grains are needed to reach setting. This directly unveils the importance of explicitly including nano-texture on the description of setting and explains why so low amount of nano-hydrates is needed for forming a spanning network. From the simulations, it becomes evident that this low amount is least affected by processing variables like the water-to-cement ratio and the presence of large quantities of nonreactive fillers. These counter-intuitive predictions were verified by ex-professo experiments that we have carried out to check the validity of our model.en
dc.description.sponsorshipThis study was carried out under the umbrella of the BASKRETE initiative and supported by the Basque Government under the ELKARTEK Program (project SUPER). Te computing facilities of TECNALIA, DIPC, and the Supercomputing Center of Galicia CESGA are likewise acknowledged. A.P. acknowledges fnancial support from the TIFER program of TECNALIA and S.A.-I. acknowledges the fnancial support from project IT-654-13 by the Basque government.en
dc.language.isoengen
dc.publisherSpringer Nature America, Inc.en
dc.rightsAttribution 4.0 International*
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/*
dc.titleA multi-scale approach for percolation transition and its application to cement settingen
dc.typearticleen
dc.identifier.doi10.1038/s41598-018-33918-6en
dc.rights.accessRightsopenAccessen
dc.subject.keywordsPercolationen
dc.subject.keywordsCement hydrationen
dc.subject.keywordsCement settingen
dc.subject.keywordsComputational Modelingen
dc.subject.keywordsSimulationsen
dc.subject.keywordsC-S-Hen
dc.issue.number1en
dc.journal.titleScientific Reportsen
dc.volume.number8en


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