Cements based on kaolinite waste
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Author/sGarcía Giménez, Rosario; Vigil de la Villa Mencía, Raquel; Frías, Moises; Martínez Ramírez, Sagrario; Vegas Ramiro, Iñigo; [et al.]
The cement industry involves high-energy consumption that generates high CO2 emissions into the atmosphere. Environmental concerns can be addressed by replacing parts of Portland cement clinkers with pozzolanic materials in mortars and concrete. Slag, fly ash and silica fume are materials considered for the planned replacement. Research studies on clay minerals, such as kaolinite, are being followed with special attention by the scientific community and the cement industry. It is well known that these minerals require an activation process to transform kaolinite (K) into metakaolinite (MK). MK is an amorphous material from the transformation of K with high pozzolanic activity, which is its capacity to react with the portlandite released during the hydration of Portland cement, generating compounds such as C–S–H gels and some aluminum-phase hydrates. One of the MK production methods is heat treatment controlled by kaolinite at temperatures in the range of 600–900°C. Different residues ...