Brain-machine interfaces for rehabilitation in stroke: A review
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Author/sLópez-Larraz, E.; Sarasola-Sanz, A.; Irastorza-Landa, N.; Birbaumer, N.; Ramos-Murguialday, A.
Brain-machine interfaces (BMI)
BACKGROUND: Motor paralysis after stroke has devastating consequences for the patients, families and caregivers. Although therapies have improved in the recent years, traditional rehabilitation still fails in patients with severe paralysis. Brain-machine interfaces (BMI) have emerged as a promising tool to guide motor rehabilitation interventions as they can be applied to patients with no residual movement. OBJECTIVE: This paper reviews the efficiency of BMI technologies to facilitate neuroplasticity and motor recovery after stroke. METHODS: We provide an overview of the existing rehabilitation therapies for stroke, the rationale behind the use of BMIs for motor rehabilitation, the current state of the art and the results achieved so far with BMI-based interventions, as well as the future perspectives of neural-machine interfaces. RESULTS: Since the first pilot study by Buch and colleagues in 2008, several controlled clinical studies have been conducted, demonstrating the efficacy of ...