Workshop on Transcutaneous Functional Electrical Stimulation
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Functional Electrical Stimulation
This chapter aims to give a general description of basic concepts related to transcutaneous FES. It offers examples of simple exercises to introduce the reader into the practical aspects of the application of transcutaneous FES. Different influencing aspects such as stimulation waveform, stimulation parameters, electrode type, placement, and size are analyzed. Available models related to FES that represent the electrical properties of the skin, current distribution on the skin, or either nerve excitability are presented as well, highlighting those factors that affect most transcutaneous FES applications. A practical guide on upper and lower limb is also presented, where different exercises are proposed to experience previously described theoretical aspects in practical application of FES. Finally, conclusions of the chapter and challenges observed during the exercises are described and novel techniques and technology used to overcome some of these challenges are mentioned.