Exposure assessment to engineered nanoparticles handled in industrial workplaces: The case of alloying nano-TiO2 in new steel formulations
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This experimental study addresses the occupational exposure assessment to nano-TiO2 (AEROXIDE ® TiO2 P 25, EVONIK GmbH) along the processing steps of ingot steelmaking at three sites, whose characteristics range from conditioned room to multi-source industrial environments (MSIS). In Site A, which is a MSIS of multiproduct flexible production, the alloying tablets are manufactured through compression of bulk nano-powder at room temperature. Tablets are then assembled in Site B, which is a lab room equipped with local exhaust ventilation (LEV). The alloying of steel takes place in Site C, which is a full-scale casting hall where substantial amounts of material per batch (3000 kg steel/batch) are processed in open-face molds and severe working conditions prevail. A comprehensive experimental strategy based on simultaneous measurements using direct reading instruments (DRI) and time integrated filter-based sampling has been set up. The main goal of this unusual campaign at an industrial ...