Do systemic collaboration and network governance matter? Living Labs beyond user-driven innovation
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Technological and social innovation
Despite the emergence and fast expansion of Living Lab (LL) around the world, little research has been conducted on the concept of LL from the perspective of both technological and social innovation and network governance. This paper critically reviews literature on the LL concept and other ‘innovation labs’ involving cross-border collaboration between private, public, and third sectors. Furthermore, we develop a framework outlining key analytical dimensions (context and aims, innovation types, stakeholders, partnership models, supporting, institutional environments, collaboration and network governance practices) and discuss findings from a study of an international sample of 120 LLs.