Assessment of ICT-based Architectures for the integration of EVs in smart grids
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The involvement of Information and Communication Technology (ICTs) systems in the evolution of distribution networks towards smart grid approaches is critical. The use of ICTs in the electrical system is already a fact, mainly in transmission but also at energy distribution level. It is expected that this dependency will increase in the future and, among other functionalities, it will help integrate distributed energy resources (DER), including electric vehicles (EVs), into network operation. Both remote communications and automated actions will be a characteristic of smart grids design, permitting higher levels of control and visibility in distribution networks. In general, smart grid features and processes in the fields of distribution automation, advanced metering, DER integration and customer empowering will condition the availability of services. DER system involvement in network operation processes is one of the main tools for flexibility enhancement in smart grids and the principal ...