Urban climate multi-scale modelling in Bilbao (Spain): a review
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Despite development of cities are including more sustainable aspects (e.g. reduction of energy consumption), urban climate still needs to be consolidated as an important variable in urban planning. In this sense, the analysis of urban climate requires a multiscale approach. This work presents a review of the results of the analysis of urban climate in Bilbao (Spain). In the meso-scale, an Urban Climate Map (UC-Map) is developed using a method based on GIS calculations, specific climatic measurements and urban climate expert knowledge. All the information is grouped in 5 information layers (building volume, building surface fraction, urban green areas, ventilation paths and slopes). The final UC-Map presents areas with relative homogeneous climate variables (i.e. climatopes) that are classified in terms of thermal comfort. Urban planning recommendations are defined. In the micro-scale, results extracted from ENVI-met model in four urban spaces show the influence in thermal comfort ...