Carbon-Free Electricity Generation in Spain with PV–Storage Hybrid Systems
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Solar power generation
Pumped storage generation
Battery storage plants
Climate change motivated by human activities constitutes one of the main challenges of this century. To cut carbon emissions in order to mitigate carbon’s dangerous effects, the current energy generation mix should be shifted to renewable sources. The main drawback of these technologies is their intermittency, which will require energy storage systems to be fully integrated into the generation mix, allowing them to be more controllable. In recent years, great progress to develop an effective and economically feasible energy storage systems, particularly motivated by the recent rise of demand for electric transportation, has been made. Lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery prices have fallen near 90% over the past decade, making possible the affordability of electric vehicles and transforming the economics of renewable energy. In this work, a study on storage capacity demand previously presented as conference paper is expanded, including a deep analysis of the Spanish generation mix, the evaluation ...