The impact of size and position of reference electrode on the localization of biphasic electrotactile stimulation on the fingertips
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Perception and Psychophysics
Development of haptic interfaces to enrich augmented and virtual reality with the sense of touch is the next frontier for technological advancement of these systems. Among available technologies, electrotactile stimulation enables design of high-density interfaces that can provide natural-like sensation of touch in interaction with virtual objects. The present study investigates the human perception of electrotactile sensations on fingertips, focusing on the sensation localization in function of the size and position of reference electrode. Ten healthy subjects participated in the study, with the task to mark the sensations elicited by stimulating the index fingertip using an 8-pad electrode. The test systematically explored several configurations of the active (position) and reference (position and size) electrode pads. The results indicated that there was a spreading of perceived sensations across the fingertip, but that they were mostly localized below the active pad. The position and ...