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dc.contributor.authorSinha, Ravi
dc.contributor.authorSanchez, Alberto
dc.contributor.authorCamara-Torres, Maria
dc.contributor.authorUriszar-Aldaca, Iñigo Calderon
dc.contributor.authorCalore, Andrea Roberto
dc.contributor.authorHarings, Jules
dc.contributor.authorGambardella, Ambra
dc.contributor.authorCiccarelli, Lucia
dc.contributor.authorVanzanella, Veronica
dc.contributor.authorSisani, Michele
dc.contributor.authorScatto, Marco
dc.contributor.authorWendelbo, Rune
dc.contributor.authorPerez, Sergio
dc.contributor.authorVillanueva, Sara
dc.contributor.authorMatanza, Amaia
dc.contributor.authorPatelli, Alessandro
dc.contributor.authorGrizzuti, Nino
dc.contributor.authorMota, Carlos
dc.contributor.authorMoroni, Lorenzo
dc.date.accessioned2021-09-14T13:37:12Z
dc.date.available2021-09-14T13:37:12Z
dc.date.issued2021
dc.identifier.citationSinha, Ravi, Alberto Sanchez, Maria Camara-Torres, Iñigo Calderon Uriszar-Aldaca, Andrea Roberto Calore, Jules Harings, Ambra Gambardella, et al. “Additive Manufactured Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering: Physical Characterization of Thermoplastic Composites with Functional Fillers.” ACS Applied Polymer Materials 3, no. 8 (August 2, 2021): 3788–3799. doi:10.1021/acsapm.1c00363.en
dc.identifier.issn2637-6105en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11556/1194
dc.description.abstractThermoplastic polymer–filler composites are excellent materials for bone tissue engineering (TE) scaffolds, combining the functionality of fillers with suitable load-bearing ability, biodegradability, and additive manufacturing (AM) compatibility of the polymer. Two key determinants of their utility are their rheological behavior in the molten state, determining AM processability and their mechanical load-bearing properties. We report here the characterization of both these physical properties for four bone TE relevant composite formulations with poly(ethylene oxide terephthalate)/poly(butylene terephthalate (PEOT/PBT) as a base polymer, which is often used to fabricate TE scaffolds. The fillers used were reduced graphene oxide (rGO), hydroxyapatite (HA), gentamicin intercalated in zirconium phosphate (ZrP-GTM) and ciprofloxacin intercalated in MgAl layered double hydroxide (MgAl-CFX). The rheological assessment showed that generally the viscous behavior dominated the elastic behavior (G″ > G′) for the studied composites, at empirically determined extrusion temperatures. Coupled rheological–thermal characterization of ZrP-GTM and HA composites showed that the fillers increased the solidification temperatures of the polymer melts during cooling. Both these findings have implications for the required extrusion temperatures and bonding between layers. Mechanical tests showed that the fillers generally not only made the polymer stiffer but more brittle in proportion to the filler fractions. Furthermore, the elastic moduli of scaffolds did not directly correlate with the corresponding bulk material properties, implying composite-specific AM processing effects on the mechanical properties. Finally, we show computational models to predict multimaterial scaffold elastic moduli using measured single material scaffold and bulk moduli. The reported characterizations are essential for assessing the AM processability and ultimately the suitability of the manufactured scaffolds for the envisioned bone regeneration application.en
dc.description.sponsorshipThe work was supported by a Horizon 2020 Research and Innovation Programme grant from the European Union, called the FAST project (grant no. 685825, project website: http:// project-fast.eu). The authors acknowledge the support of the FAST project consortium for the various aspects of this worken
dc.language.isoengen
dc.publisherAmerican Chemical Societyen
dc.titleAdditive Manufactured Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering: Physical Characterization of Thermoplastic Composites with Functional Fillersen
dc.typearticleen
dc.identifier.doi10.1021/acsapm.1c00363en
dc.relation.projectIDinfo:eu-repo/grantAgreement/EC/H2020/685825/EU/Functionally graded Additive Manufacturing scaffolds by hybrid manufacturing/FASTen
dc.rights.accessRightsopenAccessen
dc.subject.keywordsCompositesen
dc.subject.keywordsFillersen
dc.subject.keywordsRheologyen
dc.subject.keywordsMechanical propertiesen
dc.subject.keywordsAdditive manufacturingen
dc.subject.keywordsModelingen
dc.identifier.essn2637-6105en
dc.issue.number8en
dc.journal.titleACS Applied Polymer Materialsen
dc.page.final3799en
dc.page.initial3788en
dc.volume.number3en


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