New energy bound-based model for optimal charging of electric vehicles with solar photovoltaic considering low-voltage network's constraints
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Author/sFelipe Cortés Borray, Andrés; Garcés, Alejandro; Merino, Julia; Torres, Esther; Mazón, Javier
Load flow analysis
Unbalanced low voltage network
This paper introduces a linear programming (LP)-based optimisation method of charging electric vehicles (EVs) in a decentralised fashion. It exploits the available photovoltaic (PV) power to charge EV batteries while maintaining the low-voltage (LV) network within its operational limits. A new energy-bound model is implemented in order to meet the connected EVs energy requirements. This model highlights two main aspects: first, the proposed formulation seeks to compute both the upper and lower energy boundaries from the arrival energy and no from zero. Second, the charging power is dynamically adjusted by combining a fixed and variable charging rate to assure the technical limits of the network. This means maximising power delivered to all EVs for a given period by optimising the charging rate of each EV connected. Besides, a network sensitivity analysis technique is developed to manage voltage and loading constraints. The accuracy of the proposed linear approximation was tested simulating ...