Towards a territorial definition of a circular economy: exploring the role of territorial factors in closed-loop systems
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This paper deals with the territorial dimension of a circular economy. We review the territorial factors shaping closed-loop systems, upon which a territorial definition of a circular economy is developed. We consider six categories of territorial factors: (1) Land-based factors emphasize the significance of physical endowment to satisfy the growing demand of secondary and biotic materials in a circular economy; (2) agglomeration factors are important determinants for a circular economy, as these provide circular businesses with the necessary access to resources, knowledge and collaboration, as well as viable markets; some of these functions are enabled by (3) hard territorial factors, in particular by accessibility and connectivity infrastructures as well as by (4) access to state-of-the-art technologies; softer territorial factors, including (5) knowledge-related factors and (6) governance and institutional arrangements, support collaboration among companies and between them, as well ...